As specified in the ARDC Persistent Identifiers Policy, the use of Persistent Identifiers (PIDs) is critical because they provide identification of and connection between research objects and entities such as researchers, funders, organisations, articles, datasets, software, and samples. This enables better attribution and discovery of research and lays the foundation for better tracking of research impact.
ARDC project investment also requires that data outputs be made FAIR. For these reasons it is a condition of ARDC investment that project outputs (data, software, platforms, publications) must have appropriate PIDs. Metadata describing those outputs should use persistent identifiers when referring to project activity and project inputs including funding, samples, instruments, facilities, people and organisations. Where exceptions are required, these should be documented with supporting rationale and ARDC approvals, in project documentation.
The ARDC’s suite of PID services, combined with those available through the AAF led Australian ORCID Consortium, form the backbone of enabling FAIR research outputs via PIDs in Australia. Through the ARDC’s Data and Services portfolio we provide DOIs (for research data, software, grey literature, instruments), RAIDs (for research projects), IGSNs (for physical objects collected during the course of research), PURLs (for research grants), and Handles (for data and for the foundation of RAIDs). PIDs are captured and displayed in Research Data Australia where international partners such as OpenAire harvest the information and display it in their own discovery portals, facilitating further exposure and impact of Australian research.
The two tables below provide ARDC investment partners with requirements as to which PIDs to use and how to get these PIDs. If you have questions or would like to discuss further, please contact email@example.com.
PIDs Implementation Table
|Research objects and entities||PID(s) to use|
|Research datasets “published’ in a repository||DOI|
|Research software “published” in a repository||DOI|
|Research datasets or software not yet published||Handle|
|Conference papers and “grey literature” related to the project “published” in a repository||DOI|
|Research instruments||DOI (preferred) or Handle|
|Researchers and other people associated with the project||ORCID|
|Research grants from ARC and NHMRC||PURL|
|ARDC project investment||DOI|
How to get PIDs
|PID to use||How to get PIDs|
- Use ARDC DOI ARDC DOI service offered in partnership with DataCite
- Use another DOI service
- Use the ARDC Handle Service
- Use another Handle service
|ROR||Use the Research Organization Registry|
- Use ORCID directly
- Use ORCID via an ORCID member institution (contact the Australian ORCID Consortium if needed)
- Use the ARDC IGSN Service
- Use another IGSN Allocating Agent
|PURL||Assigned by ARDC and displayed in Research Data Australia grants portal|
|DOI for ARDC Investments||ARDC will assign this at the start of every project. The DOI will be issued by ARDC through CrossRef DOI Registration Agency. ARDC will advise the partner of the DOI issued.
Partners should also refer to For ARDC Partners: How to attribute ARDC Project Investment
|RAID for ARDC Investments||ARDC will assign this at the start of every project and advise the partner of the RAID issued. It is then the responsibility of the Partner to ensure that the RAID manifest is updated with other PIDs related to the project.|