As specified in the ARDC Persistent Identifiers Policy, the use of Persistent Identifiers (PIDs) is critical because they provide identification of and connection between research objects and entities such as researchers, funders, organisations, articles, datasets, software, and samples. This enables better attribution and discovery of research and lays the foundation for better tracking of research impact.

ARDC project investment also requires that data outputs be made FAIR. For these reasons it is a condition of ARDC investment that project outputs (data, software, platforms, publications) must have appropriate PIDs. Metadata describing those outputs should use persistent identifiers when referring to project activity and project inputs including funding, samples, instruments, facilities, people and organisations. Where exceptions are required, these should be documented with supporting rationale and ARDC approvals, in project documentation.

The ARDC’s suite of PID services, combined with those available through the AAF led Australian ORCID Consortium, form the backbone of enabling FAIR research outputs via PIDs in Australia. Through the ARDC’s Data and Services portfolio we provide DOIs (for research data, software, grey literature, instruments), RAIDs (for research projects), IGSNs (for physical objects collected during the course of research), PURLs (for research grants), and Handles (for data and for the foundation of RAIDs). PIDs are captured and displayed in Research Data Australia where international partners such as OpenAire harvest the information and display it in their own discovery portals, facilitating further exposure and impact of Australian research.

The two tables below provide ARDC investment partners with requirements as to which PIDs to use and how to get these PIDs. If you have questions or would like to discuss further, please contact

PIDs Implementation Table

Research objects and entitiesPID(s) to use
Research datasets “published’ in a repositoryDOI
Research software “published” in a repositoryDOI
Research datasets or software not yet publishedHandle
Conference papers and “grey literature” related to the project “published” in a repositoryDOI
Research instrumentsDOI (preferred) or Handle
Research organisationsROR
Researchers and other people associated with the projectORCID
Physical samplesIGSN
Research grants from ARC and NHMRCPURL
ARDC project investment DOI
Project activitiesRAID

How to get PIDs

PID to useHow to get PIDs
DOIOptions include:
- Use ARDC DOI ARDC DOI service offered in partnership with DataCite
- Use another DOI service
HandleOptions include:
- Use the ARDC Handle Service
- Use another Handle service
ROR Use the Research Organization Registry
ORCIDOptions include:
- Use ORCID directly
- Use ORCID via an ORCID member institution (contact the Australian ORCID Consortium if needed)
IGSNOptions include:
- Use the ARDC IGSN Service
- Use another IGSN Allocating Agent
PURLAssigned by ARDC and displayed in Research Data Australia grants portal
DOI for ARDC InvestmentsARDC will assign this at the start of every project. The DOI will be issued by ARDC through CrossRef DOI Registration Agency. ARDC will advise the partner of the DOI issued.
Partners should also refer to For ARDC Partners: How to attribute ARDC Project Investment
RAID for ARDC InvestmentsARDC will assign this at the start of every project and advise the partner of the RAID issued. It is then the responsibility of the Partner to ensure that the RAID manifest is updated with other PIDs related to the project.

Download the policy here [PDF, 1MB]